Style Manual: Part One Introduction
Because twitter has only got 140 characters per message, the author or communications person for Gharr often breaks the rules that might be accepted in normal documentation. Some notes about that are put here. Also the WordPress documents are not entirely separated from twitter, so both style on twitter and in WordPress is covered here.
For basic punctuation see: ☆ Punctuation [article]: http://wp.me/p10Tww-3pF
For comparison, exception or contrast.
- This red apple is better than the green one.
- There are only ones and zeros, than there are errors.
- He owns nothing, other than when he checks out something from the storeroom.
- The Moon is smaller than the Earth.
- Now more than ever, I need to find peace.
- Time or consequence
- Turn the handle, then open the door.
- If the door is open, then we go through the doorway.
- Once we enter hyperspace, then we can relax.
- Once we land on the planet, then we can unload our cargo.
- Back then, there was no protocols for landing our ship.
- Things were simpler then.
Only has one meaning: a US word, referring to a building where laws are made. The U.S. Capitol refers to the federal building where federal laws are made in Washington.
A brief discussion…
- Places, buildings, or administration section where laws are made
- Wealth or assets owned by a person or organization
- An offense or crime that results in a death penalty (capitol punishment)
- A large letter at the beginning of sentences, and names
- Express approval, delight, satisfaction: “That’s a capital idea, we should go with it.”
Capital has a number of meanings, but only one meaning is discussed here that is related to letters of the alphabet and words.
Standard Style Manuals also have a lot of information about how capital letter should be used. Example: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Capital_letters
Used to emphasize a group of one or more words that belong together: a Style Manual.
“Many acronyms are written in all capitals, such as NATO, BBC, JPEG. However some acronyms have gained common usage as ordinary, lowercase words; for example, we write scuba and laser.”
The whole word or group of words are capitalized, unless it is widely used and known in a particular form for that particular audience.
- Rayleigh Number
- Big Bang
- Laplace transform (commonly known)
- Fourier transform (commonly known)
- Orion Nebula, Messier 42, M42, NGC 1976
- Milky Way
- cat (common name)
- Hill Cipher (Capitalized to bring attention to it, as it is not well known)
- Artificial Intelligence
- Spin Glass Physics
- eigenvalue or eigenvector (italics are used instead to show that the words are special, and it is well-known, so is not capitalized as in normal in documentation here)
- Fermat’s Last Theorem
To highlight unusual words or to make words stick out in text. Normally a word like this is capitalized once, to draw attention to it and then left without capitols for the rest of the text (unless they happen to occur at the beginning of a sentence or in a heading). These particular words always use capital letters.
- The Howling Owls band are on a world tour right now!
Names For Fictional Or RPG Vehicles Of All Types.
They may also be in italic to emphasize that they are special words.
- The Ardent Mixer (helicopter)
- Rodent’s Zephyr (zeppelin–cylindrical airship; cylindrical air balloon)
- Lightning Express (starship)
Well known fictional or RPG units
- Green Goo From Yonder (alien unit)
- Salient Suns (criminal organization just beyond Orion)
- Intrepid Adventurers (RPG hero’s PC group name)
Fictional and RPG Ranks
- The Head Honcho (a rank) of the Intrepid Adventurers decided to buy the Lightning Express.
- Commander North of the Salient Suns looked menacingly into the distance, then turned and ran for his life.
- Captain Munchkin decided that no starship should go there. Unfortunately the captains of the other starships chose to ignore this unspoken advice, and raced off at full speed.
- The Hegemony Conglomerate Queen decided that a full invasion might just solve any differences that might occur at future diplomatic meetings.
don’t over use if possible.
See also titles: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Titles
Used to make unusual words, or words that are used in an unusual way, or have a special meaning in that part of the text stick out.
Example: Am I to be led to believe that you are the star of that show? (an italic of utter disbelief possibly… and it tries to reflect the speaker’s voice changing slightly while speaking the “you” word)
Also note that “you” is used instead of you, when giving a word as an example. This rule also applies to letters: “The ‘g’ in Rayleigh Number (Ra)….” not “The g in Rayleigh Number (Ra)….”
Quotes & Block Quotes
Didn’t you say “I am going to do that first thing tomorrow?”
- Gharr often likes headings to be all in capitols: Symbols At The End Of Text
- Gharr does on occasions use colors in headings: Symbols At The End Of Text
The colors in headings are often used for lower level headings H2–H6.
It’s important to remain in the same style for the whole document whenever possible. The individual document should also look good, and generally stick to the rules outlined here. This heading for example did not obey they above rule:
- Material Placed at the Very End of a Page or Post
If you vary the rule in a document, it is better in most cases to apply that rule to the whole document.
Other style manuals might suggest you use:
- Symbols at the End of Text
- Symbols at the end of text
Don’t use humor on twitter in documents. If you feel it is a must then keep it to the absolute minimum. Gharr does promote comedians, and occasionally an article has parts that are funny.
When you deal with people from all over the world, they often don’t get jokes, and what is focused on as funny often varies from one region to the next. Gharr’s audience is made up of many people from all over the world and humor can make people feel left out or isolated–something to be avoided in this particular case.
Gharr is not focused on dividing segments into different groups based on humor.
The mention: a space or symbol before the text message is used to make sure all Gharr’s followers see the message; as Gharr prefers that all comments are public.
This is not something Gharr wants to occur in most cases. Every tweet should also have the opportunity to promote things to the public. To force this to happen, a symbol or space is put before the twitter name:
~ @twitter_name <message>; example: ~ @twitter_name hello.
Symbols Before, In, And After A Text Message
Symbols Before Text
Because of the mention (discussed above), symbols are common on Gharr’s tweets.
These additional symbols convey special meanings at the start of a text messages.
🌎 If you need to get to the live #metal gig by @COSnROLL on Jun 22, 6:30pm! @ the Voltage Lounge, Phila, PA! [map]: https://www.facebook.com/Voltagelounge/info
On twitter, the globe turns out to be a blue and green color, and symbolized that the following information has some geographic information in it. A music symbol “♬” would mean that music is mentioned in the text.
Symbols At The End Of Text
Not many symbols belong here, but here is some examples.
- Emotes (emotions) can be placed at the end of a tweet 😉
- from a JKT48 member: “surabaya sampai 🙂“
- The music symbol: ☆ (@kanamonkey82//AKA monkey82) sabotendoll // 仙人掌人形 — Seven Stars // 「セブンスター」 [song/music] http://youtu.be/X2YrG5ZkjKI, http://sabotendoll.digi2.jp/ ♬
The metal wave symbol \m/ or \m/ \m/ occurs in, or at the end of a text message because on twitter the “\” seems to be a command symbol. If it has to go at the front, then this could be used: ⭒\m/
General Discussion About Symbols Before, In, And After A Text Message
Because of unicode, the symbols can be much wider today. Not all computers and communication devices have all the symbols. The text symbols often are given a meaning. The smile is a famous one 🙂
With Gharr, other symbols also take on a meaning: Tweeting Symbols and Texting: Gharr’s Style Manual [article]: http://wp.me/P10Tww-1U1
📌 <note content, hyperlinks are optional>; example 📌 Mars has got a very thin atmosphere.
Sample tweet using a radio symbol that has a meaning attached to it:
📻 @ChaseAllanMusic, http://www.chaseallan.com/Music.html Glad to hear that. #good #music
When you click the link, it takes you to a website that plays music. This is a common feature of websites that have music on them, and the symbol is strengthened by the use of the tags. While not strictly an online radio, websites like this can be quite entertaining to visit.
Translation symbol “//”
This symbol does not care about what side the two words or phrases occur.
used in this way:
- Seven Stars // 「セブンスター」
- 「セブンスター」// Seven Stars
Japanese word Kana//仮名 (pseudonym, false name)
In the West if a person uses a pseudonym, a word to indicate it is not normally included in the name. It may be included in a paragraph below the name in twitter, but that is optional. Clearly @name2456 is a pseudonym for example, but many people on twitter will not bother to mention such things.
kanamonkey for example can be translated into “… a.k.a. monkey” for English speakers.
On twitter the shorter version of this “a.k.a. monkey.” is used by Gharr:
- ☆ (@kanamonkey82 //AKA monkey82) sabotendoll // 仙人掌人形 — Seven Stars // 「セブンスター」 [song/music] http://youtu.be/X2YrG5ZkjKI, http://sabotendoll.digi2.jp/ ♬
With “a.k.a. monkey” or “AKA monkey” the reader must infer that the ellipses have been left out.
The “//” is used by Gharr to form a division between translations: Seven Stars // 「セブンスター」& sabotendoll // 仙人掌人形
Thus you if you follow that logic: @kanamonkey82 //AKA monkey82 is a translation of the name kanamonkey into English.
For more discussion on AKA & Kana see: Words and phrases [article]: http://wp.me/P10Tww-1IF
Punctuation Marks On Twitter And Possibly In documentation Also.
Ellipses are used in a sentence or paragraph that has parts left out. It is often used by writers using existing material.
- Ellipses: “…sentence or paragraph [with]… parts left out.”
Writers producing their own work may use ellipses to indicate that they could have added additional things, but chose to not do so. This pause, can indicate other things also.
Mary is a great writer… I have enjoyed reading every book she published.
Em Dash —
In a document style is not important, what is important is what the reader is conditioned think and the overall way the document looks to the reader. This is what makes a document fun and easy to read. To achieve this it is better to break style then risk loosing the reader.
Often used as a substitute for brackets (). Brackets in documents and text tend to bore the normal reader; but are often used in science.
Everyone (even Bill) thought it was a bad idea. Everyone—even Bill—thought it was a bad idea.
FOR THE END OF A SENTENCE, OR NEAR A PUNCTUATION MARK: ONLY ONE EM DASH IS NEEDED.
The mixer (a cyclone 330A), was the most useful thing I had in the kitchen. The mixer—a cyclone 330A, was the most useful thing I had in the kitchen.
To Highlighting Something
I admit it! I was the one that ate the last cookie in the house. I don’t feel guilty at all—I enjoyed it.
Not Often Used On Twitter
A BREAK IN THOUGHT
- Well yes I’m—well no, you’re right.
AN INTERRUPTION (NOT USED ON TWITTER)
- I have been continually interrupted here, I was just about to say—
A SHIFT AND OVERLAP BETWEEN SPEAKERS (FOR INTERVIEWS)
In interviews on twitter, it can be hard to show how the time line actually evolved. Some times a little extra punctuation can help. Often when writing an article, or report every clue can help the author make sure the text is as accurate as possible. Articles mad for Gharr might be visited often, and revised quite some time after they were completed, so this sort of punctuation assists in reducing time wastage.
- @bill That comment was uncalled for, as I was— (this indicates the author meant to stop here, and has not made an error in recording the text. A pure copy of the text would not have this, and since references are often used: the original text can still be accessed in a lot of cases).
- @Jack @bill you are wrong, face up to facts!
- @bill @Jack You won’t even let me finish typing my reply. Have you no decency?
En Dash –
See discussion at: Tweeting Symbols and Texting: Gharr’s Style Manual [article]: http://wp.me/P10Tww-1U1
The Colon :
Generally used when a sentence is obviously introducing something.
- Today is: payday!
It can also be used to explain.
Mars: a red planet that is in our solar system.
📎@COSnROLL: live #metal at McStews Levittown, PA, Jun 28! Let’s hope the website is updated soon with this #news http://www.cornersofsanctuary.com/index.html \m/
The Possessive Noun
- Only people can own things, so a possessive noun only applies to such cases.
- Exception 1: a group of people can possess things. That is the Hockey Club’s Field;
- Exception 2: Under law, a company can be considered to be a person (prevents a single person from taking the fall when a company fails, and also limits the amount of money that will be lost when problems do occur). Example: “The company’s reports stated…”
- Exception 3: People or companies can not own slaves (other people). Thus we might use the word company as a descriptive noun in such cases “these are the company employees who….” rather than “these are the company’s employees.”
- Exception 4: Sonny Williams’ wife or Bill’s son, Williams’ brother (marriage, family, or children).
- If it sounds good: The Earth’s people, The Sun’s warmth, A Mars colonist, 53% of Mars’ population like the color pink (the extra “s” sounds nice).
The United States Army. A Mars colonist. Earth’s people
Interestingly: if a band or place is used in a descriptive way (to describe noun), then the possessive is also dropped
- The Beatles song
- New Orleans cuisine
The possessive when a planet is involved:
This may change if media shows a preference for using certain forms.
- Earth’s astronaut // Mars’ astronaut — “We then noticed that Mars’ astronaut was caught in a solar storm; once communications were restored.” (group)
- Earth astronaut // Mars astronaut — “That Mars astronaut has thousands of hours experience in using space suits, and equipment.” (descriptive)
- US Astronaut // Indian Astronaut // Japanese Astronaut // Russian astronaut
- United States Astronaut // Philippines Astronaut (descriptive)
- Mars One astronaut // NASA astronaut // Mars One colonist (descriptive)
- Earthling // Martian — “He is a Martian.”
- Earth colonist // Mars colonist — “She is a Mars colonist.” (descriptive)
- Earth person // Mars person — “A Mars person lives in lighter gravity.” (descriptive)
- Earth’s colonist // Mars’ colonist — ??? “That Mars’ colonist like to vegetables.” (group)
- Earth’s colonists // Mars’ colonists — “Mars’ colonists like gardening.” (group)
- Earth’s people // Mars’ people — “Mars’ people often wear sky pink clothing.” (group)
- Earth people // Mars people — “Mars people like to jump when they are happy.” (descriptive)
- Earth’s population // Mars’ population “Mars’ population is set to increase.” (group)
2017, Feb: Corrected some long standing and glaring errors in spelling and grammar. Added definitions to words to assist in preventing future errors and confusion.
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Shortened link to article: Gharr’s Style Manual: Part One [article]: http://wp.me/P10Tww-31n