Useful Data

Miscellaneous Information

Useful For Twitter

Tweet Sentiments, a tool for analysing twitter:

A Map of Tweets on our Globe + time zone map:

Time Zone Conversion to your zone (in this case from utc):

Text Acronyms:


HTML Entities for symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters [website]:


The following information is listed here: how to list dates, large numbers,
temperatures, time, distance, land measures, population, greetings, daylight
saving, and constants.

The information contained here is only a guide and you should check your
preferred reference if it is a critical matter as the author can not take
responsibility for any errors in this page or from the references used by the

Purchasing and Delivery

  1. COB: Close of Business
  2. COD: Cash on Delivery: in business the delivery person collects the money (and depending on the contract–or lack of–may be also taking the risk of bearing the cost if the payment is not made).
  3. FOB: Free on Board: the seller will pay the costs of delivery for you, but once you receive the product, you have the title to it and all the risks that go with that. Variations of this would indicate at what point in the delivery process the seller gives the risk of delivery to you. Some sellers may for example state FOB ORIGIN, which means the moment the seller delivers the product to the carrier, the risk goes over to you–probably meaning you will have to consider if the product is worth insuring.


Logic Symbols

This link will give you a whole lot of useful maths symbols:

This gives you some basic rules for Boolean algebra:

DeMorgan’s Theorems :

Karnaugh Maps:

also here is some really good videos on the Karnaugh map

Shortened link to video: Karnaugh map (and the importance of playing packman) :

Karnaugh Maps SOP Minim Part 1

Shortened link to video: Karnaugh Maps SOP Minim Part 1 :

Karnaugh Maps SOP Minim Part 2

Shortened link to video: Karnaugh Maps SOP Minim Part 2 :

Karnaugh Maps SOP Minim Part 3

Shortened link to video: Karnaugh Maps SOP Minim Part 3 :

Karnaugh Maps SOP Minim Part 4

Shortened link to video: Karnaugh Maps SOP Minim Part 4 :

For Karnaugh maps with lots of terms, computers are generally used to solve the problem as the maps start to become very complex.

Logic uses only a “1” (TRUE), and “0” (FALSE). All the calculations that can be performed on these symbols can be done by using and, or, and not operations. The XOR is a derived value that is quite useful in a number of fields.

Because inputs and outputs to logic can be numerous, they are represented by abstract symbols such as A, B, C and so on. Computers often handle more complex logic calculations where the solution would be difficult for a human being to calculate the answer.

Sample solution 1: A⊕B = (A•B’)+(A’•B)

Sample solution 2: (A⊕B)’ = (A•B)+(A’•B’) ; This is more common in electronics (at least in older type IC’s) due to price and manufacture considerations.

The table below shows the output for A⊕B

 Input A Input B Output
 0  0  0
 0  1  1
 1  0  1
1  1  0





+ OR

XOR  not a fundamental logic symbol

Modular Arithmatic

The Mod function or % operator in computer languages has a number of interesting uses.

Check Sums

How dates are listed

The most common method in Australia is:

  1. 25/7/05
  2. 25 July 2005
  3. Monday, 25 July 2005

Europe seems to like using the following conventions:

  1. 7/25/05
  2. July 25, 2005.

The international standard way to list dates are:

  1.  2005-07-25
  2. 2005 07 25
  3. 20050725

Metric System


  • Days: 25 d
  • Time: 2 h, 30 mins, 12 s
  • Mass: 5 t (tonne)
  • Pressure: 1 bar at sea level (atmospheric pressure)
  • Pressure: absolute at 100m underwater is 11 bar
  • Volume of liquids: 1 litre of water weighs 1 kg, but under fresh-water relative pressure increased by 0.98 kg, and with salt water around 1 kg per 10 m.
  • p=P atmosphere+ r×g×h = 1.01 × 105 + (1×103×9.8×100) = 1.01 × 105 + 9.80 × 105 = 10.81 × 105 Pa = 10.81 × 102 kPa
  • 100 kPa = 1 bar, so 10.81 × 102 kPa = 10.81 bar. Each 1 m increases the pressure by 9.8 kPa, or 0.98 bar per 10 m, and at 100 m the pressure is 0.98bar/10m×100m+1.01 = 9.8 bar (relative) + 1.01 bar (atmospheric pressure at sea level) = 10.81 bar absolute.
  • Angles; degree, minute, second: 45°58′57″ = 45 + 58/60 + 57/3600 = 45 + (3480+57)/3600 = 45 + 3537/3600 = 45.9825 ≈ 45.98°





Decimal Factor

Million thousand X thousand 106
Billion million X million 1012
Trillion million X billion 1018
Quadrillion million X trillion 1024

American and French numbers

  1. Billion represents thousand times a million (109).
  2. Trillion represents million times a million (1012),
    called a Billion in Australia.
  3. Quadrillion represents a million times a US billion  (1015).

In general it is best to avoid the use of billion, trillion and quadrillion
or use powers of ten to represent them or write them out in full. Some use the
metric mega, giga, tera, peta and exa to refer to big numbers, but usually in
reference to metric numbers that fall under the SI unit system.

Time measurements

Days: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday.

Saturday and Sunday are generally considered as week ends and are
traditionally days off from work. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and
Friday are considered traditional working days. Australia like many other
countries also has some days in the year designated as public holidays. These
days are also traditionally considered as days off from work.


January[1, 31] February [2, 28] March [3, 31] April [4, 30]
May [5, 31] June [6, 30] July [7, 31] August [8, 31]
September [9, 30] October [10, 31] November [11, 30] December [12, 31]

February has 29 days on a leap year. Leap years take place every four years.


  1. 12:00-11:59 a.m. or 00:00-11:59 is considered the morning.
  2. 12:00-11:59 p.m. or 12:00-23:59 is considered the day, afternoon and night

Greetings within the customer service industry

In the service industry, it is very unwise to say ‘see you later’ as some
cultures misunderstand this to mean exactly what you say rather then a throw
away line that essentially means ‘goodbye.’

Another service industry standard is to be aware of how close you are
standing to some one. Different cultures like to stand at different distances
when having a conversation with you.

Another thing to be aware of is that different countries view customer
service people in different ways. Some expect you to stay quietly in the
background. Others are offended if you do not come up and shake their hand. Some
cultures consider customer service jobs as important while other cultures
consider such jobs as the last choice anyone would take when searching for work.

Some people are quite pedantic, especially Australians, about when you say
‘good morning, good day, good evening and good afternoon.’ Some of these people
work in the service industry and greeting people is common. I generally say:

  • 05:00-11:59    ‘Good morning’
  • 12:00-18:59    ‘Good Day’
  • 19:00-21:59    ‘Afternoon’
  • 22:00-04:59    ‘Hello’

In Australia you can get away with the less formal ‘hello’, ‘good day mate’
or ‘how it going’ at most times of the day or night. For those who are pedantic
on when you should say a particular greeting, then I am sure there is some guide
lines some place out there.

Daylight Savings

Day light savings actually occurs at differing through the year depending on
where you are. In Australia, Queensland does not have daylight savings for example. The the rest of Australia uses the following (European) guidelines:

  • Turn clocks forward on first Sunday of April at 2 a.m.
  • Turn clocks back 1 hour on last Sunday of October at 2 a.m.

America does the following

  • Turn clocks forward on last Sunday of March at 1 a.m.
  • Turn clocks back 1 hour on last Sunday of October at 1 a.m.


Temperature is measured in degrees Celsius, degrees Kelvin or degrees

  • deg. Cel. = deg. Kel. – 273
  • deg. Cel. = 5/9 X ( deg. F. – 32 )

Ovens are listed as:

Deg. Cel. Deg. F. Gas Mark
Very Slow 120 250 1
Slow 150 300 2
Moderately Slow 160 325 3
Moderate 180-190 350-375 4
Moderately Hot 190(g)-210(e) 375-425 5
Hot 200(g)-240(e) 400-475 6
Very Hot 230(g)-260(e) 450-525 7
(g) = gas   (e) = electric

Sample dial settings for a square type electric fry pan. To get a exact
measure I usually like to use temperature probes on the surface. The controllers
for fry pans can be a little rough.

Dial Setting Deg. Cel. Temperature roughly
1 100
2 110
3 125 Very Slow
4 140
5 150 Slow
6 160 Moderately Slow
7 175 Moderate
8 185 Moderate Hot
9 200 Hot
10 210

As you can see a mark can mean different temperatures dependant on the
device. This is the reason I think you should read the manual or use a
temperature probe to check things out. Experienced cooks and chefs use other
methods such as the browning of bread or the tossing of water onto the plate or
the sound of meat sizzling to get a idea of temperatures. If you cook a lot you
too will find alternative methods of telling the temperature of a device.

An Australian standard cup holds 250 ml of liquid. The most accurate method
of measuring dry ingredients is to weigh them.

The average egg is assumed to be 60g in Australia. But always look to the
recipe to check on measurements since they vary from one country to another

Land Measurements

  • Hectare = 100, 00 Sq. metres = 0.01 Sq. km = 2.47105 Acres

The hectares measure is often used for farm land. It comes from the seldom
used hecto metre that is equivalent to 100 m or 0.1 km.

Astronomical Measurements

  • Light Year =     1 l.y. =
    9.4605 X 1012 km    = 6.324 X 104 a.u.
  • Parsec =          1 pc. =
    3.0856 X 1013 km    = 2.0626 X 105 a.u.
    = 3.2616 l.y.

Astronomers can often speak in kpc or Mpc.

The astronomical unit (a.u.) is used to describe things in our solar system
and is based on the distance from the sun to the earth if the earth followed a
perfectly circular orbit of 365.2568983263 days around the sun ( which in fact,
it does not).

For measurements between stars and galactic measurements, the light year or
parsec is preferred.

Set Theory

This subject is relevant to electronics and logic circuits.


A ∩ B, A ∪ B, A ⊆ B, A ⊂ B, A ⊄ B, A ⊇ B, A ⊃ B, A ⊅ B, a ∈ A, x ∉ A, Ø = {}, U (universal set–all possible values)

The set symbols can be found here:

Formal Rules of Algebra

Multiplications of fractions

a∙1/b∙c∙1/d=a/b∙c/d=(ac)/(bd) –and the order you multiply things does not matter

Reference: The Formal Rules of Algebra [ accessed Jan 2013]


ACT is also known as the Australian Capitol Territory

Zone Population Year of survey
World Population 6,707,000,000 2008
Australia 20,848,760 2006
Victoria 5,297,600 2006
Melbourne 4,000,000 2008
Geelong 160,991 2006
Ballarat 78,221 2006
New South Wales 6,967,200 2006
Sydney 4,504,469 2008
Albury 43,787 2007
Forbes 8,954 2007
Eugowra 535 2007
Canowindra 1,499 2007
Gol Gol 663 2006
Queensland  4,279,400 2006
Brisbane 2,004,262 2009
Northern Territory 219,900 2006
Darwin 124,800 2009
South Australia   1,601,800 2006
Adelaide 1,289,865 2007
Western Australia 2,163,200 2006
Perth 1,658,992 2009
Esperance 14,450 2007
Kambalda 4,259 2006(?)
Tasmania 498,200 2006
Hobart 219,287 2008
ACT 2,358 345,257

Physical Constants

  • speed of sound at 0 deg. Cel. is 331 m/s. Thus if a thunderbolt sound
    takes 2 seconds to reach you, then you can assume it is roughly 660 m away
    from your location.
  • speed of light is 3 X 108 m/s.
  • absolute zero is at -273.15 deg. cel.
  • acceleration near the surface of the earth = 9.806 65 m/s2.
  • pressure of atmosphere = 100 kPa.

I want to make pressure of a standard atmosphere a little more accurate, so here is a more detailed version: “1 atm = 1.01325 bar = 101.3 kPa = 14.696 psi (lbf/in2)= 760 mmHg =10.33 mH2O = 760 torr = 29.92 inHg = 1013 mbar = 1.0332 kgf/cm2 = 33.90 ftH2O” via accessed Jan 2013 & yet to be fully checked for accuracy…

temp info stored: goodbye happiness , very cute video Prisoner Of Love HEART STATION Flavor Of Life -Ballad Version- This Is Love (Live Ver.) Keep Tryin’ nice cartoon style Passion nice cute style again Be My Last don’t like Light related to game, could go with trek Around someone’s wish come true – complex voice singing COLORS complex again Deep River Rhythm SAKURA nice, could go with similar videos FINAL DISTANCE stand alone song Movin’ on without you stand alone song Wait & See hmmm, where to put that one

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