Branches of Science

Introduction

This is a very complex subject, and would defiantly class this article as IMNH. As where a field branch lies is probably defined by experts in that field and related fields, and the topic of interest here is Social Sciences, and their use of the word Theory, particularly in the field of economics.

But a wide view of science will be looked into first, and how it’s branches are structured.

Science is divided up into three main branches

  • Natural Sciences (NATSCI)
  • Formal Sciences (mathematics, and logic with uses priori, rather then methodology, or factual.
  • Social Sciences (Human Behavior, & Sciences)

Definitions

These definitions are very rough summaries, so feel free to look up the definitions yourself.

Algorithm: Another way of classifying algorithms is by their design methodology or paradigm.

Applied science: Applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, like technology or inventions.

Fact: Known from observation or experience (can be repeatedly observed)

Brainstorming: Gathering a list of ideas

Ideas: Can be formed from many methods, and don’t necessarily need to be based on practical or realistic things.

Impression: An idea made with little thought, or by drawing together lots of facts very quickly to form an idea. Often relates to people.

Inquiry:  The act of asking questions

Law:  A description of reality that often uses abstraction of geometry, graphs or math formulas.

Methodology: General way of doing research that may use several methods. A paradigm and algorithm is very similar to a methodology.

Paradigm: A way of thinking

Priori: Formed beforehand; derived from self evident reasoning: a circle is round.

Scholarly method: “The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. It is the methods that systemically advance the teaching, research, and practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry. Scholarship is noted by its significance to its particular profession, and is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, and can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods.” ~ wiki accessed 2017

Theory: Formed by testing lots of Hypotheses and it is hard to disprove. Some fields of science may put heavy weight on Priori, and scholarly method, and they might be considered to be hard to disprove, but also less accurate in describing the true nature of our world, particularly when man made ideas are the basis (such as for money: just an idea and a measure).

Thought: That which is used in practice, while theory is an academic is not based on practice (possibly thought is similar to applied)

Examples

Natural Science
  • Physical Science
    • Physics
    • Chemistry
    • Earth Science
    • Ecology
    • Oceanography
    • Geology
    • Meteorology (focuses on weather forecasting)
    • Space Science or Astronomy
  • Life Science (same meaning as biology, but not in branching it seems)
    • Biology (study of life and living organisms)
      • Zoology (animal life)
      • Human Biology
      • Botany (plant life)
    • The following are classed as new to life science
    • Bio-computers
    • Environmental Science
    • Food Science
    • Health Sciences
    • Medical device
    • Medical Imaging
    • Optometry
    • Population dynamics
    • Pharmacology
    • Psychology (has overlap with social sciences)
    • Sports Science
Applied science
  • Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Applied Physics
  • Medicine
  • Computer Science
Formal science (uses priori)
    • Maths
    • Logic
    • Statistics
    • Decision Theory (very closely related to game law)
    • Systems Theory
Social science (Outside Natural Science)

Uses Field of Scholarly Method to gain trustworthiness for the science. An umbrella term for a large number (plurality) of field outside the natural sciences.

    • Anthropology
    • Archeology
    • Business Administration
    • Communication
    • Criminology
    • Economics
    • Education
    • Government
    • Linguistics
    • International Relations
    • Political Science
    • Psychology

IMNH: Do we trust Economic Ideas, should they really have the right to be called Economic Theories

☆ IMNH (I’m a New Hypothesis) or ImaH the abbreviation: http://bit.ly/b7EHAu

The news talks about global warming, mass extinction of animals (and maybe humanity along with them), rising sea levels, the collapse of the monetary system due to automation, and huge economic mistakes like the home loan crisis, where good loans were mixed with bad loans, and sold as good loans (“increasingly complex, and opaque financial products”) on the stock marker apparently.

Economics is often in the hands of the elite politicians, and business leaders who often have a great deal of finances to influence governments. With the elite making all the decisions, they can become complacent, and overconfident. In theory the housing loan crisis could not happen, as everyone is well informed in theory and able to act rationally, but this is not true in reality.

The economy and economic theories are not similar to the natural sciences and the natural science theories. There is nothing natural about economics. Economics is made up of the sum of decisions of people that operate within the system. Money is just a measure, and economics exist in our heads as a bunch of figures in tables that can be changed, erased, or adjusted. The people that create the figures (measures) into the tables can be influenced by their biases, they can act inefficiently and irrationally.

If the Economic system is in the hands of the elite, and powerful, we might also suspect that they are using the prestige of the word Theory, to make their decisions seem more trustworthy, and based on solid foundations like the natural sciences, when in fact Economics and Economic Theories is nothing like the natural sciences, and should receive a lower level of trust.

Science if often seen as seeking truth, and is often seen as compatible with common good. On the other hand politics and economics is perceived as seeking profits, and power, something that is seen as not compatible with common good. This probably will create a feeling that economics will not produce solutions to save our world from mass extinctions, sea level rises, global warming, and the crisis of the economy itself—because of automation.

In Conclusion

This article is not just about pointing fingers at the problems of economics, or telling you about the dangers faced by our world, it is also a good place to share awesome ideas, thoughts, and solutions. Each and every one of us can make a difference, by just learning about what is happening in our world, and looking for solutions to any problems we find, and there are people around the world that are working on solutions. If you feel a lack of trust in our economy and politics to solve problems, then you might find the solutions you are looking for here.

Because Economic Theories, and Economic ideas are quite different from the natural sciences, and can be influenced by irrationality, bias, a lack of knowledge about the market, the very data (measures) and changes (to those measures) that are held in tables (tables that hold data that is just ideas in our heads). Such economic records on the tables can be erased, changed, or adjusted.

We should put less prestige and trust in both economic ideas and economic theories.

If we are facing several global crises, and also a failing monetary system, and thus a failing economic system: solutions need to be found.

Fortunately people like Jeremy Rifkin (economist willing to look at trends, thoughts, education trends, new global empathy concepts, new ideas of what really motivation us, and new emerging types of economies: such as the sharing economy), Michel Bauwens and et al, and the P2P Foundation (a future where if governments cooperate with the people: pooling our resources through commons, creates prosperity for all), and The Venus Project (a world where all resources become the common heritage of us all, in a Resource Based Economy, were money does not exist, and automation works to meet all our needs: no more hunger, war, unnecessary human suffering, prisons).

All the above solutions depend on all 7 billion of us knowing that solutions exist, and what options we have when things get tough, and they already are tough in many cases. While historically wars and conflict were the prime ways to force change, the internet, and global community probably don’t want to loose their global friends in conflicts, or go to war (but that might still not prevent wars, and suffering). In a peaceful society, and movement that should be respected by the global community, simply sharing good ideas, thoughts, and solutions are enough to move towards a change that will solve some, all, or even all and some extra problems not mentioned here.

If we are heading towards a global community, the idea of countries, borders, and local politics will probably play a lesser part; and the ideas, thoughts, and solutions that we share among the global community will play a much more significant role in changing our world. If we become aware of the problems we face, and the solutions available to us, it will make a very big difference.

Feel free to check out Jeremy Rifkin, the P2P Foundation, and The Venus Project for yourself, and share with others any solutions to the world’s problems that you take a liking to.

If you are in crisis mode right now, and desperate for any type of solutions that could be implemented in the short term (but the world’s problems might still exist, and the economy may still continue to fail), check out One Community Global: https://www.onecommunityglobal.org/.

There are also people like ☘ Marcin Jakubowski, 2017 Developer Invitation : https://youtu.be/SxYgF701w0M ❧ that are providing open source plans for farm machinery, and are also producing such machinery on site in a workshop. However the technology to do work on farms is changing quickly, and drones, and agricultural robots will play a big part in production and the management (such as more efficient weed control) of the farms.

🌎 Noomap: https://youtu.be/OWrc214FoAA, https://twitter.com/Noomap is working toward creating a new way to communicate on the internet: “Noomap is a holonic, mind-like technology revolutionising communication, collaboration and co-creation. Navigate imaginal worlds of perception and possibilities.”

Reference

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branches_of_science
  2. https://www.lifehacker.com.au/2015/09/the-difference-between-a-fact-hypothesis-theory-and-law-in-science/
  3. thought, Ferenc Hörcher https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_are_the_main_differences_between_political_theory_and_political_thought2
  4. deductive inference http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/1122science7.html
  5. Brainstorming: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainstorming
  6. Inquiry http://www.justsciencenow.com/inquiry/
  7. Methodology: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodology
  8. Algorithm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorithm
  9. Scholarly method https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholarly_method
  10. Life Sciences (divisions of) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_natural_science
  11. Subprime mortgage crisis I https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subprime_mortgage_crisis
  12. Subprime mortgage crisis II https://www.federalreservehistory.org/essays/subprime_mortgage_crisis
  13. Economics is not a social science [a play on words] http://www.feasta.org/2011/10/05/economics-is-not-a-social-science/
  14. Economics is a Social Science, not a Natural Science http://www.pragcap.com/economics-is-a-social-science-not-a-natural-science/
  15. Science dilemma: between public trust and social relevance [social good vs profits and power] http://www.euroscientist.com/trust-in-science-as-compared-to-trust-in-economics-and-politics/
  16. Priori I https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_priori_and_a_posteriori
  17. Priori II http://www.iep.utm.edu/apriori/
  18. Priori III [used in math] http://www.futureaccountant.com/probability/study-notes/mathematical-classical-a-priori-definition-probability.php
  19. Priori IV http://www.economicshelp.org/blog/glossary/apriori/
  20. Jeremy_Rifkin I https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeremy_Rifkin
  21. Jeremy_Rifkin II http://www.foet.org/about/jeremy-rifkin/
  22. Michel Bauwens and et al, and the P2P Foundation: https://p2pfoundation.net/

📰

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Last edited in April 2017
Gharr is currently in hiatus: “I miss writing all those articles, and sharing all those great things, and ideas on the internet.” Sept 2016

Shortened link to article: ☆ Branches of Science [article]: http://wp.me/p10Tww-4ee

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