Mars, the red planet

Mars

Tourist & Settlers Guide to Mars

  • 1 Mars Year = 687 days (about two earth years) or 669 Sols (a Mars day)
  • 1 Mars Day: (solar day) 24 hours 39 minutes and 35 seconds.
  • Moons: Phobos and Deimos. These small moons are unable to stop more pronounced axial precession (that causes a variation of the axial tilt) of the planet. With Mars, the wobbling axis from the normal to the plane of its orbit (obliquity) oscillates between 15° and up to 35°.  The variations in axial tilt (caused by axial precession) results in global warming and global cooling (ice ages on earth). Currently Mars is in a warm interglacial period (a period of warmer global average temperature) that has lasted for 100, 000 years. Mars has a current axial tilt of 25.19°. Ice ages are influenced by axial tilt, the direction of tilt relative to the sun, and orbital changes (shape more like a circle, or more like an ellipse for example. Referred to as eccentricity).
  • Next Ice Age on Mars: It is uncertain how ice ages occur, but Mars is thought to be between Ice Ages right now.
  • Gravity: 3.711 m/s²
    • about 3.711/9.80665= 0.3784166866361092,
    • more than a 1/3 the gravity of earth roughly, meaning you could jump 3 times higher than you could on earth (if your muscles were the same, but muscles do get weaker as people travel to mars).
  • Atmosphere: Very Thin: 600 pascals (0.087 psi)
    • People need to wear space suits (for various reasons)
    • See “Armstrong limit” [wiki]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armstrong_limit
    • Without a magnetosphere, the solar winds interact directly with the atmosphere of Mars, creating ions, and through this process Mars can lose its atmosphere as time goes by.
    • Clouds:  yes they are thought to exist in the colder regions of Mars, and may be water based or CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) based [5]
    • Snow: Water based snow does exist on Mars, but it is still not known if it manages to reach the ground [5]
    • CO2 (Carbon Dioxide Snow): “Not the usual snow, but cubic pellets with the corners lopped off and replaced by triangles, called cuboctahedrons.”  [5]
    • CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) Geysers near Transparent Dry Ice surfaces (dry ice is frozen CO2, that normally looks white) near the poles. Mars has little atmosphere to block sunlight heat, so things can heat up rapidly.
  • Temperature:
    • Surface Temperature: 20 degrees Celsius to -153 degrees Celsius
    • Mid Latitudes: 0 degrees Celsius to -60 degrees Celsius
    • Polar: -153 degrees Celsius
    • At the poles it has clouds and it does snow (but it does not reach the ground)
    • The sun: On Mars, it appears to be half of its size to that on earth.
    • Sky Color: Yellow brown. When water crystals are in the sky, the sky may be violet color, and at sunset and sunrise (occurs well before or after the sighting of sun) the sky is pink with blue colors near the Sun. [8]

  • Warning:
    • Mars has the largest dust storms in the solar system, these dust storms may also emit lightning!!! [1] It is unknown if high altitude lightning occurs on Mars
    • Static Electricity: triboelectric charging [2] may damage delicate circuits
    • Mars Dust: may burn and cause respiratory health problems (silicosis for example) [6]
  • Life: None known yet, but colonists, and previous spacecraft may have contaminated the surface of the planet with life. Of course Mars is a harsh place, and it could be asked if most unprotected life from earth could survive on Mars. Yes life can hitch a ride to Mars [3]
  • Tallest mountain in the solar system: Warning, this 21 km high shield volcano could still be active!

Tourist and Settler Guide on Travel to Mars: transit details

  • Static build up on outer skin on spacecraft: it can not be gotten rid of, but it will disappear when the spacecraft enters the atmosphere; the entry into an atmosphere will cause ionization which will bleed of the charge. [4]
  • For the Mars One crew it will take 7 Months to travel from Earth to Mars [7]

Words to Know When Visiting or Moving to Mars; or When Working as a Solar Reporter

Possessive Nouns: if they sound good, use them. If you are from Earth, then substitute the word Earth for Mars and see if it sounds right.

  • Mars’ people — “Mars’ people are well known for their like of isolated, quite places; and dislike of dust storms.”
  • Mars astronaut — “That Mars astronaut was the first person to ever travel to Mars.”
  • US Astronaut // Indian Astronaut // Japanese Astronaut // Russian astronaut
  • United States Astronaut // Philippines Astronaut (descriptive added to astronaut)
  • Mars One astronaut // NASA astronaut // Mars One colonist (descriptive organization or company name added to astronaut)
  • Earthling  // Martian — “He is a Martian.”
  • Mars colonist — “She is a Mars colonist.” (descriptive)
  • Mars person — “A Mars person lives in lighter gravity.” (descriptive)
  • Mars’ colonists — “53% of Mars’ colonists like the color pink.”
  • Mars people — “I think that Mars people like to jump when they are happy.” (descriptive add on to people)
  • Mars’ population — “Mars’ population is set to increase.” (group)

Explanation of why it takes so long to reach Mars

✎ How Long Does it Take to Get to Mars? [ video ]: http://youtu.be/MpOJ6fQ0roI #space #astronaut

References

Please note: Gharr works on a world wide basis. While Gharr tries to stick to one region for style, grammar, and spelling; this ideal is often not achieved.

Style is usually thought of as a guide line rather then a unbending law of writing. In the end the media must appeal to the audience and/or the people providing the funding for the project.

References that are indexed

[1] Lightning rides with the Mars dust storms

[2] Static electricity warning for Mars (a little lightning bolt might zap critical electronics)

[3] Life hitching a ride to Mars

http://www.ibtimes.com/hardy-little-micro-organisms-earth-could-hitch-ride-spacecraft-colonize-mars-1579799

[4] Static electricity built up on spacecraft surface as it travels to Mars

[5] Clouds on Mars

[6] Mars dust may burn & cause lung problems such as silicosis

[7] Mars One Human crew will spend 7 Months in a space craft before arriving at the pre-made Mars habitats (launched earlier, and assembled by robots and/or telemetry—remote control of robots by humans) [ video ]:  http://youtu.be/n4tgkyUBkbY (3:00 min)

[8] The color of the Mars Sky [Wiki Article]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomy_on_Mars#The_color_of_the_sky

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Last edited in Jun 2014

Shortened link to article: 🚀 Mars, the red planet [article]: http://wp.me/p10Tww-2T4

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