Thousands of years in less than 8.5 seconds is a reflection on the thought that light from the center of the sun can be very ancient. The sun is a fusion reaction (except to those who smoke those funny cigarets that tell me everything is a chemical reaction)–and that fusion reaction produces neutrinos, and that in turn tells us what is happening in the sun right now! UTAU: http://utau.wikia.com/wiki/UTAU has got characters called UTAUloids: http://utau.wikia.com/wiki/UTAUloids #Vocaloid #Info UTAU Characters (UTAUloids) only last as long as they’re supported by musicians, groups, businesses, or fan groups. #Vocaloid #Info Some UTAU characters (UTAUloids) might B preserved 4 historic reasons. They might end up being famous in the distant future. #Vocaloid #Info
☆ Flavescit — 【UTAU English chorus】Wannabe【Spice girls Cover】[song/music]: http://youtu.be/t8GKzBhAgQo
Six trillion years and overnight Story
☆ K’suke and Aoi (dancers) IA (vocals) — Six Trillion Years and Overnight Story [dance]: https://youtu.be/JLmPJc-s2Ps #Vocaloid
☆ Team MErBiii (dancers), Ashe (vocals) — Six Trillion Years and Overnight Story [dance]: https://youtu.be/U_zqNpEadQ8 #English_Version
It can take thousands of years for light to travel from the center-of-the-sun to the earth’s-surface. It takes a neutrino less than 8.5 second to travel from the center-of-the-sun to the earth’s-surface. The energy from this fusion reaction is not constant, and the density of the sun varies as well–the sun actually has layers that vary in density. These energy releases can cause huge energy fluctuations on the surface of the sun and this in turn can cause solar flares for example. Solar flares are so powerful that they can effect the earths communications systems and can even be a danger to astronauts, and space stations for example. Solar flares can also cause havoc with our earth-bound communications and electrical power distribution systems. There is an interest in what is going on in the sun. Fusion reactions happen to produce neutrinos that don’t react with matter and only take about 8.5 seconds to get from the center of the sun to the earth. While they are very hard to detect, there are so many of them produced, that physicist can use them to get an idea of what’s happening in the sun right now (or at least roughly 8.5 seconds ago). A little more complicated, is the fact that neutrinos come in three different types (three flavors as physicists like to say). It’s complicated because the different types (flavors) of neutrons can suddenly change into another type (flavor)–this is called oscillation by the physicists, as they actually oscillate between the different types (flavors) of neutrinos. To detect all the energy from the sun, we need to detect all types (flavors) of neutrinos. The exact ratio of the types of neutrinos may vary when astronomers measure neutrinos that have traveled a very large distance. One article for example states that as the energy of the neutrino reaches the “GeV-TeV (Giga electron volts to Terra electron volts) energy range” they approach the ratio of 1:1:1 for the different types (flavors) of neutrinos. The events that produce such high energy neutrinos are even more exotic and strange–the stuff they talk about even surprises me. High energy neutrinos can be produced by:
- high energy cosmic rays that collide with stuff, can produce high energy neutrinos as a result of that collision, such events includes collisions with:
- The universe is not transparent to high energy cosmic rays, and they are effected, and collide with lots of stuff. It’s currently thought that the universe is so opaque to high energy particles, that only short distances (by cosmic standards) of 50 million light years can be traveled by high energy cosmic rays before they collide with or interact with something. The exact size of our universe is puzzling to most of us, but we know the “visible universe” has got a diameter of around 93 billion light years, and this number is getting larger as older and older light reaches us. There is only speculation as to what lies beyond the visible universe as the light has not reached us yet, or in some cases will never reach us as some things sitting on the universes expanding fabric, are traveling away from us at faster than the speed of light rates, or very close to the speed of light (which means that the fabric of very distant space, is expanding at a rate that is faster than the speed of light at the present moment, and so the light will never get a chance to reach us, or the combined effect of the expanding fabric of space and the speed of a galaxy will red shift it so far that it becomes invisible).
- the cosmic background radiation (which is particles–things like neutrons, photons, possibly dark matter and dark energy, and even antimatter (matter will normally be destroyed in such a collision)–that are left over from the big bang),
- photon clouds near high energy events such as jets (beams, and twisting magnetic fields) produced by black holes, and some say
- high energy neutrinos may be produced by dark matter; which might give us some clues to what that stuff that makes up around 25% of our universe is (the remainder of our universe is 70% dark energy, and 5% matter–the stuff you, me, earth, the sun, galaxies, and gas and dust clouds that exist in outer space are made of; that’s right, the things you can sense is only really 5% of the universe content–or visible matter).
These events are of interest to us as an earth destroying death beam might hit us one day: Supernova Death Beam Distance ≈ 30 Light Years [article]: http://wp.me/p10Tww-1o6 Some say that these oscillations may answer the question such as why we exist–by comparing neutrino oscillations to its antimatter opposite which naturally enough is called an anti-neutrino (which also oscillates between three different types or flavors).
This video gives us an Idea of the size of the universe, but it does not explain the visual horizon–how it may be possible that some galaxies we can see today, might be red-shifted so they can not be seen in the future, or possibly move outside the visual borders boundary. I suppose this is not also discussed, because it makes it sound like we live in a sort of odd version of a theoretical black hole–our light might not ever reach some galaxies that seem to be moving away from us at speed that are greater than the speed of light. This may seem strange, but the visual border is getting bigger as time goes on and more light can reach us, but the universe (space) is expanding, at a rate that is determined by the Hubble constant: that is the further an object is the faster it moves away from us. As space expands, objects we can see will appear to be further away from us, and based on the Hubble constant, they will appear to have picked up some speed as well–due to the universe expanding. If this picked up speed (due to the expansion of the universe) exceeds the speed of light, then light will never have a chance to reach as long as that expansion is happening at a constant or increasing rate. Apparently the expansion rate is increasing.
How Big is the Universe?
The basic dimensions of our galaxy. The videos in this series are very interesting and might also be worth checking out: http://www.youtube.com/user/minutephysics How Big is the Universe?
The Center Of The Universe
A good explanation of how the expanding universe makes it seem like things are moving away from each other. In theory however, if you reverse the balloons expansion, you can go back to the big bang. The Center Of The Universe
- http://www.livescience.com/18946-antimatter-neutrino-disappearing-oscillations.html for various neutrinos, anti-neutrinos and hints of why there still is matter in our universe (why do we exist?).
- http://youtu.be/5NU2t5zlxQQ this video explains how big our universe is, and why the observable universe is getting bigger as time goes by (because light that is even older has time to reach us). The light we see is around 13.8 billion years old, that is also the age of our universe. The objects that made that light have had 13.8 billion years to travel away from us, not only from a velocity it gained from the explosion, but from an expansion of the 3D surface of the galaxy (if the universe–the 3D surface–is expanding, and dark energy is apparently making the universe expand at an accelerating rate, then it’s possible for objects to appear as if they are moving away from us at faster than the speed of light velocities). Since space can expand faster than light can, then distance of that thing that gave off that light might even be further away then expected. In fact the visible universes diameter is not 2×(2×13.8 billion ly)= 52 billion ly–if we assume galaxies travel away from us at the speed of light, but 2×(13.8 billion ly + (13.8+18.9) billion light years)= 93 billion light years wide. That means that the furthest object away from us would have traveled at (13.8+18.9)/13.8= 2.37 times the speed of light away from us because they sat on the “fabric” of the universes surface (3D) that was expanding at a speed that was faster than the speed of light. The model used to explain this confusing idea, is the surface of a balloon that has spots drawn on it. Because the spots don’t move on the balloon, the velocities that each spot has relative to the other, appears to be increasing as we blow up the balloon to a larger size. In our galaxy, an added complexity is that the galaxies can seem to have a velocity because of the universe’s expansion, but also have an actual velocity of their own as well. This topic might get its own article eventually as it’s hard to explain in words alone.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universe this explains the basic dimensions of the visible universe.
- http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/badastronomy/2009/05/07/the-universe-is-expanding-at-742-kmsecmpc/ finding the distance and speed of a galaxy (based on red shift & new Hubble constant).
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accelerating_universe “The accelerating universe is the observation that the universe appears to be expanding at an increasing rate.” and “Eventually all galaxies beyond our own local supercluster will redshift so far that it will become hard to detect them, and the distant universe will turn dark.”
- http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2213257/Really-REALLY-fast–Thats-quickly-universe-expanding-according-accurate-estimate-science.html The accurate Hubble constant based on distance to the candles (Cepheids, standard candles in our cosmos).
- http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_expansion.html history of using Cepheids to determine distance.
- http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/10/27/how-big-is-the-unobservable-un/ How big is the unobservable universe? this is a difficult subject, because it also starts to move into theories of parallel universes when we start to talk about such large scales. Interestingly enough, parallel universes can also become a discussion point on the smallest of scales in theoretical discussions of string theory. An additional point of interest is that some tiny structures are still intact after the big bang; when our universe expanded at astounding speeds. Another interesting discussion is whether the our unobservable universe has a edge or not.
- http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/5-8/features/F_How_Big_is_Our_Universe.html this reference is quite good, because it you think of what possibilities exist if we start to actually think of how big our universe really is. I particularly like this statement: “And other parts of the universe, very far away, might be quite different from the universe closer to home.“
- http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-is-dark-energy/ This is quite good, as it actually shows clearly that the universe varied in expansion over time (quote: “This diagram reveals changes in the rate of expansion since the universe’s birth 15 billion years ago.”), and talks about dark energy, the stuff that’s making the universe expand at an ever-increasing rate.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_matter this article talks about dark matter. Dark matter is important because it has a gravitational effect on real matter.
- http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/articles/hulth/ This is an extremely good article about the sources of neutrinos and how they might even reveal the nature of dark matter: Solar Neutrinos, Supernova Neutrinos, Neutrinos from the Unknown Sources of Cosmic Rays (The sources have to be “close,” not further away than 50 million light years), Neutrinos from “Dark Matter,” Atmospheric Neutrinos,How Are Neutrinos Detected?, and High Energy Neutrino Telescopes.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomagnetic_storm related to solar storms (flares) hitting the earth.
- http://www.latimes.com/news/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-solar-flare-2013-20130411,0,1817542.story Just a report a massive solar flare in 2013
- http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/ask/a11354.html this reference describes why it takes so long for a photon of light to get from the center of the sun to the sun’s surface.
- http://sunearthday.gsfc.nasa.gov/2007/locations/ttt_sunlight.php this discusses why it takes so long for a photon of light to get from the center of the sun to the sun’s surface, and provides some nice pictures.
- http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/qa_sun.html#center This is a very short answer as to why it takes so long for a photon of light to get from the center of the sun to the sun’s surface. It also has answers to some other very interesting topics in astronomy and could be a useful reference.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrino_oscillation This talks about neutrino oscillation.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_core This talks about the solar core and mentions neutrino production.
- http://solarcellcentral.com/sun_page.html This has a lot of information about stars and the sun–includes neutrino production.
- http://snews.bnl.gov/popsci/neutrino.html This article mentions the fact that neutrinos don’t interact with matter usually.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_neutrino_problem This article is based on the view of searching for a solution that eventually led us to understand what neutrino oscillation is.
- http://www.sns.ias.edu/~jnb/Papers/Popular/Scientificamerican69/scientificamerican69.html discusses capturing neutrinos from the sun.
- http://www.astronomynotes.com/starsun/s4.htm A very nice picture of a neutron moving straight out of the sun, and a photon bouncing around all over the place.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrino_detector Neutrino detectors.
- http://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/neutrinos/neutrino-types-and-neutrino-oscillations/ another article discussing neutrino oscillations.
- http://arxiv.org/abs/1304.4906 brief mention of high energy neutrinos.
- http://icecube.wisc.edu/info/neutrinos brief discussion on the neutrino.
- http://www.nature.com/news/icecube-catches-high-energy-neutrino-oscillations-1.10776 measuring neutrino oscillations
- http://www.csiro.au/en/Outcomes/Understanding-the-Universe/Technology-for-radio-astronomy/Hunting-Neutrinos.aspx “The hunt for ultra-high-energy neutrinos” and “In 2010, a team of scientists used CSIRO’s Parkes telescope to look for nanosecond bursts of radio waves created by ultra-high-energy (UHE) neutrinos interacting with the Moon’s surface.”
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrino lots of information about the neutrino.
- http://www.sns.ias.edu/~jnb/Papers/Preprints/gammarays.html various energy levels of neutrinos.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observable_universe The observable universe, some light from distant galaxies may never reach us.
- http://www.dimensionsinfo.com/what-is-the-size-of-the-universe/ discusses what the size of the universe might be.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsec What a parsec is and compares it to a light year.
Last edited in Apr 2013
Shortened link to article: Thousands of years in less then 8.5 seconds [article]: http://wp.me/p10Tww-25B
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